If you are relaxing because you have your open source usage under control, beware. There is another increasingly common type of ungoverned third-party code that your engineers are using in your products: Web APIs.
There are many Web APIs published that, like open source software, are free of cost, readily available, provide great value, but are not free of obligations or risks. For example, https://www.programmableweb.com/api/keystroke-resolver is a Web API for mapping keystrokes from one type of keyboard to another. Perhaps useful, but what is this open source service doing with those keystrokes? Retaining them (if so, in what country)? Selling them? Marketing to your customers based on them?
Sometimes Web APIs are available to you as part of your license for a commercial software product or service. For example, you can build your own web applications using DocuSign’s published Web APIs. Use of those APIs is covered by your DocuSign license and access to them is only available to holders of an API key issued by DocuSign to paid licensees. However, even these commercial Web APIs have pitfalls for the products and services that use them.
|MISTAKEN ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT WEB APIS||NON-COMMERCIAL WEB APIS||COMMERCIAL WEB APIS|
|API implementation will remain same||No||No|
|API interface will remain same||Maybe Not||Probably|
|API will process data locally||No||No|
|API will be hosted in same legal jurisdiction||Maybe Not||Maybe Not|
|API will be available 100% of time||No||No|
|API has an SLA||No||Maybe Not|
The Web API author’s ability to instantaneously change it is good if they fix bugs and security vulnerabilities. But it is bad if they just as instantaneously introduce new bugs and vulnerabilities, and bad if they change the functionality or interface to break your application. You have no control over whether or not you use those daily changes because you’re always using their current implementation.
Even if the Web API uses strong encryption for data in transit between your application and their server, the fact that some of this data might be personally identifiable information means not only will it be sent over a public network, but it may even be sent to another country.
Here is an example of a Web API. The current weather at a particular latitude and longitude can be found using the following URL (visit it yourself to see the results):
If I were a French citizen and visiting a web page that uses the weatherbit.io Web API to find out the weather at my current location, my latitude and longitude would be sent to their server in New Jersey, USA. Certainly, a data privacy concern.
To take it a step further, what Web APIs hosted by yet other parties might weatherbit.io be calling to map the latitude and longitude to my time zone? to my city? to my state? to my country?
This is another example of the newest technology being adopted by organizations before management knows about it or can govern it. This is what happened with Shadow IT. Then Shadow Engineering emerged when software developers started using open source without permission from their management or procurement departments. Now, shadow web development via Web APIs is an increasingly common way for programmers to efficiently build web applications. Today, building web applications is a composition of proprietary code, outsourced code, open source code, and open source online services accessed via Web APIs. You must understand and manage the provenance of each of these components.
David Znidarsic is the founder and president of Stairstep Consulting, where he provides intellectual property consultation services ranging from IP forensics, M&A diligence, information security management, open source usage management, and license management. Learn more about David and Stairstep Consulting at www.stairstepconsulting.com.